Much like the sci-fi series it -- sorta -- satirizes, The Orville takes on social issues like war vs. peace, and the right to choose one's own gender. The social messages are undermined by the show's unserious tone.
Generally cartoonish sci-fi battles, as well as other types of combat: In a VR game, men shoot vintage rifles at each other; two co-workers blow off steam by boxing and punching each other so hard one flies out of the ring. Some characters use sci-fi weaponry like laser guns, and a ship doctor is able to instantly heal minor injuries.
Sex jokes, as when a slime creature pops up a stiff tentacle and leers "there's more where that came from." Jokes about penises, vaginas, circumcision.
Plenty of mid-level cursing: "son of a bitch," "ass," "hell," "crappy," "d--k," "t-ts."
Drinking, Drugs & Smoking
Adults have drinks with dinner; men bring a co-worker beer to get him loosened up enough to see their point of view; they then joke about being drunk.